## What is a polynomial?

In Maths, Polynomial is a concept which is studied under the Algebra branch.
Polynomials are a particular type of algebraic expressions, when all variables involved in an algebraic
expression have powers with whole numbers only.

Algebraic expressions can be studied in details in the chapter
Algebraic Expression and its Operations with
Examples.

Let’s first read the basic terms that comprise the polynomials before moving to the definition and
various types of polynomial.

## Variable

Variables are defined and used in algebra. Its definition states that a symbol which can be used to assign
different numerical values is known as a variable.

Variables are represented by any small case English letters.

x,y,z,p,q,r,s etc.

## Constant

In Math, a symbol having a fixed value is called a constant.

8, 5, 9, π etc.

## What is an Algebraic Expression?

A combination of constants and variables connected by some or all basic operations +, -, X, ÷ is called an algebraic expression.

7 + 8x

So, here we have made an algebraic expression connected by + operation by combining a constant 7 and
a constant 8 with variable x.

7 + 8x – 6x^{2}y –
$\frac{4}{9}$
xy is
another example of algebraic expression.

## What are Terms in algebraic expression?

Various parts of an algebraic expression separated by + or – operations are called terms.

Consider the algebraic expression as 7 + 8x – 6x^{2}y –
$\frac{4}{9}$
xy

So, the terms in this expression are 7, 8x, 6x^{2}y, –
$\frac{4}{9}$
xy

## Definition of Polynomial

An algebraic expression in which variables involved are having non negative integral powers is called a polynomial.

We can learn polynomial with two examples:
**Example 1: **x^{3} + 2x^{2} + 5x + 7

Variables involved in the expression are only x.

The power of x in each term is:

x^{3}, x has power of 3

2x^{2}, x has power of 2

5x, x has power of 1

7, 7 has power of 0

So, we can see x variable in terms of the expression has powers as 3, 2, 1 and 0; which are non negative
integrals.
**Example 2: **x^{2}y + xy^{2} + 7y

So, variables involved in the expression are x and y.

The powers of x and y in each term are:

x^{2}y, x has power of 2 and y has 1

xy^{2}, x has power of 1 and y has 2

7y, y has power of 1

So, we can see x and y variables in terms of the expression have powers as 2 or 1 which are non negative
integrals also.

So, that makes them polynomials.

## Degree of polynomial

For a polynomial involving one variable, the highest power of the variable is called degree of the polynomial.

3x^{4} + 5x^{3} + 7x^{2} + 8

This polynomial is one variable polynomial i.e. x.

The powers of the x variable are 4, 3 and 2

∴ the highest power is 4.

Hence, the degree of the polynomial is 4.

## What are the types of polynomial?

Polynomials have different types depending upon the degree of polynomial and number of terms involved in the polynomial.

### On the basis of number of terms

Polynomials are classified and named on the basis of the number of terms it has.

In general, the naming of type of polynomial is written by prefixing the words mono, bi and tri to “nomial”.

Where mono refers to one, bi refers to two and tri refers to three.

The types are monomial, binomial and trinomial.

Let’s have a look at the various types of polynomials with their examples.

#### Monomial

A polynomial containing one non zero term is called a monomial.

8x^{5}

In this polynomial, there is only one non zero term i.e. 8x^{5}. Therefore, it is an example
of a
monomial.

-7y^{3}

Here, -7y^{3} is only one non zero term.Therefore, it is also an example of a monomial.

#### Binomial

A polynomial containing two non zero terms is called a binomial.

7x^{6}-3x^{4}

In this polynomial, there are two non zero terms i.e. 7x^{6} and 3x^{4}. Therefore,
it is an example of binomial.

#### Trinomial

A polynomial containing three non zero terms is called a trinomial.

5x^{4} + 3x^{2} – 8

Here we have three non zero terms i.e.
5x^{4}, 3x^{2} and 8. Therefore, it is an example of a trinomial.

#### Quadrinomial polynomial

A polynomial containing four terms is called a quadrinomial polynomial.

7x^{5} – 3x^{2} + 9x + 5

#### Quintrinomial polynomial

A polynomial containing five terms is called quintrinomial polynomial.

y^{6} + 8y^{5} + 9y^{4} + 9y^{2} + 7

### On the basis of degree

#### Linear polynomial

A polynomial of degree 1 is called a linear polynomial. A linear polynomial in one variable can have at most two
terms.

Linear polynomial in variable x can be in general form of ax + b

x^{1} + 8

#### Quadratic polynomial

A polynomial of degree 2 is called a quadratic polynomial. A quadratic polynomial in one variable can have at
most three terms.

Quadratic polynomial in variable x can be in general form of ax^{2} + bx + c

5x^{2} + 2x – 7

#### Cubic polynomial

A polynomial of degree 3 is called a cubic polynomial. A cubic polynomial in one variable can have at most four
terms.

Cubic polynomial in variable x can be in general form of ax^{3} + bx^{2} + cx + d

2x^{3} + 3x^{2} – 5x + 7

#### Biquadratic polynomial

A polynomial of degree 4 is called a biquadratic polynomial. A biquadratic polynomial in one variable can have at
most five terms.

Biquadratic polynomial in variable x can be in general form of ax^{4} + bx^{3} + cx^{2
} + dx + e

2x^{4} + 5x^{3} – 3x^{2} + 7x – 4

## What is a Constant Polynomial?

A polynomial of degree 0 is called a constant polynomial.

4, -7 etc.
**Why?**

∵ 4 can be written as 4y^{0}, where the degree of this polynomial is zero.

Also, -7 can be written as -7y^{0}, where the degree of this polynomial is zero.

Hence, 4 and -7 are examples of constant polynomials.

## What is a Zero Polynomial?

A polynomial is said to be zero polynomial if all coefficients are equal to zero.

0x^{5} + 0x^{3} + 0x^{2} + 0x etc.

Degree of zero polynomial is not defined.

## List of polynomials types on the basis of number of terms

Polynomial | Number of terms | Example |
---|---|---|

Monomial | 1 | 5x^{2} |

Binomial | 2 | 2x^{5} + 5x^{3} |

Trinomial | 3 | 9x^{8} + 3x^{5} – 12 |

Quadrinomial polynomial | 4 | 3x^{6} + x^{4} – 6x – 1 |

Quintrinomial polynomial | 5 | 3x^{9} – 2y^{7} – y^{4} – 2y^{2} – 4 |

## List of polynomials types on the basis of degree

Polynomial | Standard form | Degree |
---|---|---|

Constant | ax^{0} | 0 |

Linear | ax + b | 1 |

Quadratic | ax^{2} + bx + c | 2 |

Cubic | ax^{3} + bx^{2} + cx + d | 3 |

Biquadratic | ax^{4} + bx^{3} + cx^{2} + dx + e | 4 |