## Introduction to Arithmetic

Arithmetic is the branch of mathematics which deals with study of numbers and operations on numbers.

## Arithmetic topics list

The following topics have been covered from arithmetic.

**Numbers****Number system****Fractions****Ratios****Factorization****Percentages****Interest calculations****Interesting number patterns****Arithmetic theorems**

### 1. Numbers

Arithmetic is the study of numbers and it has different types of numbers e.g. natural numbers, whole numbers and integers. Other than natural, whole and integers, there are numbers which can be written in the form of $\frac{\text{p}}{\text{q}}$, which are called rational numbers. These rational numbers can be represented on a number line also.

There are another type of numbers which are prime number and composite numbers.

### 2. Number system

Number system or numeral system is the system which defines the symbols to help write numbers. The mathematicians has developed such number systems which we use till today. Hindu Arabic System and Roman Numerals systems are the most widely adapted numeral systems in the world.

There are place value and face value of a digit in a number, which can decide the value of a digit in a number. This also helps in determining if a number is greater or smaller than the other number.

### 3. Fractions

Fractions are used in maths to represent how many parts are there in a whole object.

There are different types of fractions, e.g. like fractions, unlike fractions, unit fractions etc.

The comparison of fractions can be done to check which fraction is greater or less, same like the natural numbers are compared. The fractions can also be written in ascending or descending orders.

The fractions can also be added (+), subtracted (-), multiplied (×) and divided (÷) same like other natural numbers, which can be learnt in Arithmetic Operations on Fractions.

### 4. Ratios

Ratios and proportions are the topics in arithmetic that helps in comparing two quantities. The chapter Ratio, Proportion and Continued Proportion discusses how to write ratios and proportions with examples and worksheets.

### 5. Factorization

Factorization is the fundamental technique of telling if a number has its multiples. Lowest common multiple (LCM) and highest common factor (HCF) are the chapters which use the concept of factorization.

### 6. Percentages

Percentage in arithmetic teaches about how to write percentages and how to convert percentages into fractions and decimals. There are formulas to calculate percentages on profits, loss, discounts and profit, loss and discount percentages and how to find the different prices like cost price, selling price, effective cost price are discussed in details in the chapter Profit Loss Discount Marked Price & Calculate Percentage.

### 7. Interest calculations

The day to day bank operations relies on interest calculations which comes under the branch of arithmetic. How do banks calculate interest on principal and formulas to find simple interest and compound interests can be read in the chapter Simple, Compound and Rate of Interest with Examples.

### 8. Interesting number patterns

As these patterns are completely related to numbers, which makes them a part of study under the branch arithmetic. There are magical pattern of 9, magical pattern of 11, magical pattern of 3367 and interesting pattern of Pascal's triangle, which is in fact a special set of numbers which can be arranged in rows and columns and produce a triangle of numbers. Pascal's triangle was introduced by a famous french mathematician and philosopher, Blaise Pascal.

### 9. Arithmetic theorems

Arithmetic has a famous theorem to study which is the Fundamental theorem of arithmetic which was introduced by Kamal al-Din Hasan ibn Ali ibn Hasan al-Farisi from Euclid's proposition 30, proposition 31 and proposition 32.