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Angle, its Types and Measures

Introduction

In the chapter Point, Line, Ray, Line Segment and Plane we learnt about the basic geometrical concepts of rays. The inclination of these rays to each other leads to the formation of an angle. The word “angle” originates from the latin word which is “angulus”, which means in latin as corner.

In daily life we can see an example of angle formation when a ladder is leaned against a wall. In such scenario of leaned ladder against the wall, the angle is formed at top of the ladder where ladder and wall meet at a point and the second angle is formed where ladder and floor meet at a point.

Let’s take a deep look at the basics of angle, its measurements and various types.

What is an Angle?

A figure formed by joining two different rays starting from the same fixed initial point is called an angle.

Example of an angle ∠AOB
Example of an angle ∠AOB

In the given figure, this figure is made up of two rays OA and OB . The common end point of two rays is called the vertex of the angle.
So, O is the vertex of angle AOB.
The rays OA and OB are called the arms or sides of angle AOB.
An angle is denoted by the symbol ∠.
Only capital letters of English alphabets are used to name an angle. Name of angles can be written using three or one alphabet.
Thus, we can write the above angle in figure as ∠AOB or ∠BOA or ∠O.
We can see from the naming that vertex is always kept at the centre when written using three alphabets and only vertex when written as a single alphabet.

Measurement of angle

The unit of measuring an angle is degree.
The word degree originates from the Latin word “gradius” which means “step”. It refers to a stage in an ascending or descending order.
The symbol used for degree is “°”. It is inserted on the right top of the numeral.
for example, 90 degrees = 90°

Types of angle

1. Acute angle

An angle which is less than 90°, is called acute angle.

Example of Acute angle
Example of Acute angle

2. Right angle

An angle which is equal to 90°, is called right angle.

Example of Right angle
Example of Right angle

3. Obtuse angle

An angle which is greater than 90° and less than 180° is called obtuse angle.

Example of Obtuse angle
Example of Obtuse angle

4. Straight angle

An angle which is equal to 180°, is called straight angle or straight line angle.

Example of Straight angle
Example of Straight angle

5. Reflex angle

An angle which measure greater than 180° but less than 360° is called reflex angle.

Example of Reflex angle
Example of Reflex angle

6. Complete angle

An angle is said to be complete angle if two different rays coincide with initial point after making a complete revolution.

Example of Complete angle
Example of Complete angle

Here, ray OA and ray OB coincide each other after making a complete revolution.
∠AOB = 360°

7. Zero angle

An angle is said to be zero angle if two different rays coincide without any revolution.

Example of Zero angle
Example of Zero angle

Here, ray OA and ray OB coincide ∠AOB
∠AOB = 0°

Note

The acute and obtuse angles are known as oblique angles.

What are Congruent angles?

Angles having the same measure are said to be congruent angles.

Example of Congruent angles
Example of Congruent angles

What are Adjacent angles?

Two angles are said to be adjacent angles if they have common vertex, a common arm and other two arms of the angles are on the opposite sides of the common arm.

Example of Adjacent angles
Example of Adjacent angles

In the given figure, two angles ∠AOB and ∠BOC have a common arm OB, a common vertex O and the other two arms OA and OC lie on the opposite sides of common arm OB.

1. Complementary angles

Two angles are said to be complementary if they form adjacent angle and sum of their measure is equal to 90°

Example of Complementary angles
Example of Complementary angles

∠AOC + ∠BOC
= 45° + 45°
90°

2. Supplementary angles

Two angles are said to be supplementary angles if they form adjacent angles whose sum of their angles is equal to 180°

Example of Supplementary angles
Example of Supplementary angles

∠ABO + ∠CBO
=120° + 60°
180°

List of types of angles with measures

Name of angleMeasure
Acute angle0° < θ < 90°
Right angleθ = 90°
Obtuse angle90° < θ < 180°
Straight angleθ = 180°
Reflex angle180° < θ < 360°
Complete angleθ = 360°
Zero angleθ = 0°